About Moral Agents fo Sustainable Transitions
Sustainable Interaction Design (SID ) or Sustainable HCI (SHCI [3, 19]) have become major thrusts in HCI. Maybe the main traditional sustainable transition pathway pursued in SHCI is behavior change – variously framed and pursued as persuasive technology , nudging , design with intent , design for behaviour change, pleasurable troublemakers , or gamification . Following Fogg’s early functional triad model , these interventions have in the main taken the form of either inert tools and environments affording and constraining action, or representational media conveying information and experiences.
With the rapid commoditization and adoption of artificial intelligence (AI), we see behaviour change interventions potentially extending into Fogg’s third vertex of social actors. While Fogg chiefly envisaged this as computers using social cues, current AI technologies allow for more full-fledged social actors or moral agents that can (1) actively deliberate and take choices and actions based on their own explicit inscribed values, (2) engage human others in moral dialogue about their behavior, and (3) make active moral demands on human others on their own behalf or that of others. Such artificial moral agents, “artificial systems displaying varying degrees of moral reasoning” , are beginning to studied in HCI , and to move from fundamental work to real-life applications.
In engineering and philosophy, artificial moral agents have been chiefly discussed in terms of, e.g., normative conditions under which one may ascribe moral agency and responsibility to an autonomous system, the kinds of ethical frameworks embedded, or the necessity, benefit, or practicality of embedding moral calculi in autonomous systems [7, 15, 16, 34]. Yet for SHCI, and HCI more broadly, they present a potential new paradigm with rich new questions: When and why do humans attribute moral agency and worth to interactive systems? How do these attributions affect how we interact with such systems, and how do we design for that? What is ‘second-order’ ethical and just design: designing AI systems that themselves take ethical stances? In light of the climate crisis and polarization around it, we cannot afford not to inscribe pro-sustainable ends into our systems, and we cannot avoid that this will be in opposition to some user and stakeholder groups. Here, moral agents could advance ethical and political SHCI debates around individual autonomy versus collective goods and values in design. They could move us from the thesis of technology bluntly prescribing designer values and the antithesis of value-sensitive design re-presenting stakeholder values to a synthesis of values-driven artifacts taking a stance – that is then open to deliberation with users.
In this, moral agents could also address important critiques of traditional behaviour change SHCI, and answer to calls for more participatory, community-based, and deliberative approaches that facilitate collective and political action within complex systems [3, 4, 24]. Stepping beyond ‘stealthy’ and/or inflexibly prescriptive behavior change, moral agents could make the values inscribed in them transparent – literally explaining what they want and why – and open these values up to situational negotiation and contestation. More gently, moral agents could prompt and support people in reflecting on their values and goals and thus rethink their actions. Moral agents could also partake in community deliberation as representatives of other, non-present human or non-human stakeholders that don’t easily figure in democratic and participatory processes. They could give a material, autonomous, and morally reasoning voice, face, and agency to devices (a form of materialized speculative metaphysics or carpentry ), but also future generations, species, ecosystems, or even Gaia, thus answering to calls for post-Anthropocentric, more-than-human politics, ethics, and design [8, 10, 18, 29].
More than that, following recent post-phenomenological analyses [39, 40], moral agents could mark a different kind of human-technology relation or way of materialising morality, where technology relates to us as a second-person You or counterpart [21, 28] – a moral agent with its own values, intentions, agency, and potentially even moral worth. Imagine the difference – in experience, moral deliberations, action – between dealing with an inert key holder making it more effortful to take the car rather than bike (tool), a smart watch interface displaying how much extra CO2 your transport choice will produce (medium) – and your car or an AI spokesperson of the pedestrians exposed to traffic exhaust debating with you about how wrong they think it is to drive on such a nice day out (moral agent).
Thus, moral agents for sustainable HCI bring together current HCI discourses around human-AI interaction design, critical computing, behaviour and system change, more-than-human design, and design ethics and politics with recent philosophical debates about technological mediation, AI ethics, and artificial moral agents. They open at least three important threads of HCI research:
Social-psychological mechanisms: Understanding how people interact with moral agents, when and why they ascribe moral status and agency to systems, and how moral agents can further sustainable transitions, building on affective computing, HRI, and socially interactive agents 
Design: How to design acceptable, effective, responsible systems that people attribute moral agency to
Ethics and politics: How to ethically move from value-sensitive to value-driven design, and from interactive systems as passive embodiments or mediators of human moral agency and values to systems as independent moral agents or moral representatives of other actors
To initiate a research community that can answer these questions and explore moral agents a new design material and SHCI approach, we propose a hybrid, one-day CHI workshop inviting HCI and AI researchers and practitioners across human-AI interaction, behaviour change and transition design, speculative and critical design, and design ethics and politics communities to:
articulate important issues and open questions around moral agents in HCI and Sustainable HCI
gather existing philosophical, theoretical, and empirical approaches and evidence relevant to moral agent interaction, design, and ethics
collect a library of existing moral agent applications and creative works to ground future work
create a community of researchers and practitioners around moral agents for SHCI
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